Saturday, 13 June 2020




The analysis of sentences helps us in understanding those things which are common to all sentences, and it shows how we can make different sentences with the help of two parts, subject and predicate.



It contains one subject and one finite verb at least. The finite verb forms the predicate. Objects and other words can follow as per the definition of the predicate.  . A simple sentence contains one clause. A clause is a sentence in construction. A clause has a subject and a predicate.

1.      Rain started. (Finite verb as the predicate.)

2.      Traffic stopped.

3.      Dogs barked.

4.      Ravi has come. (has (helping verb)  and come (the main/principal verb) make one finite verb .)

5.      I have bought a new pen.

6.      Ravi and Ramesh play hockey.

7.      I teach physics and chemistry in that school.

8.      Gold is precious.


A complex sentence contains one principal Subject and one principal Predicate, but it has two or more finite verbs. Thus, it has two clauses, an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

1.      saw that something was wrong. (Two finite verbs; two clauses)

The part containing the principal Subject and Predicate (I saw) is called the principle clause; the other part (something was wrong) is called the Subordinate Clause.  The clause “something was wrong” is a dependent clause with a subject (something) and predicate (was wrong.) The word “that” is a conjunction joining the two clauses.

2.      If you think so, you are wrong.

‘If you think so’ (the dependent clause). ‘you are wrong.’  (the main clause.)

N.B.: These two clauses cannot have independent meanings as the clauses of Compound/Multiple Sentences

3.      When the manager returns, I shall ask him if the books, which you have ordered, have arrived from the publishers.

N.B.: See the sentence above at (ii) for more than one dependent clause.

This complex sentence includes the main clause (I shall ask him), an adverb clause (When the manager returns), a noun clause (the books have arrived from the publisher), “if” is a conjunction, and an adjective clause (which you ordered.) qualifies the noun books.


A compound sentence contains two or more simple or complex sentences. Thus, a compound   sentence has two or more clauses  (simple or complex) of equal importance, These clauses make sense independently when taken separately:

1.      I opened the door, and Ravi came in.

2.      I opened the door, Ravi came in, and both of us greeted each other heartily.

3.      A person dies, but the legacy endures.

4.      The sun rose, and mist disappeared.

5.      He came out, but I did not see him.

N.B.: She sings and dances. It has two finite verbs (sings and dances). It is a compound sentence because:

She sings and dances are the elliptical form of She sings and she dances.


Exercise No. 7

Mark Simple, Complex, and Compound sentences from the following sentences:


1.      Mahatma Gandhi preached non-violence. (Simple)

2.      India advocates truthfulness and compassion, but some countries do not do so. (Complex)

3.      India helped Nepal during a devastating earthquake because we have eternal friendship, Nepal welcomed our Prime Minister most lovingly, and the entire world watched this tumultuous welcome cheerfully. (Compound)

4.      In these difficult times if you do not sweat, you will suffer.  (Complex)


1.      Experience matters.

2.      Weather changes suddenly.

3.      Dogs bark.

4.      I tried to locate my friends at the Bus Stand, but they had already left.

5.      They had already left the Bus Stand before my arrival so I could not meet them.

6.      My wife was busy in watching the television, so I went to the temple nearby.

7.      These days’ vegetables have become very costly.

8.      Singing and dancing are my hobbies.

9.      These poor school boys love chocolates, but they do not get them often.

10.   ”A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on." (John F. Kennedy)

11.   "Tell the truth, work hard, and come to dinner on time." (Gerald R. Ford)

12.   While we waited at the train station, Amit realized that the train was late.

13.   My brother returned his new computer after he noticed some cracks on its screen.

14.   When prices go up, customers buy less fruit.

15.   As Gandhiji was bright and honest, he became a successful lawyer in no time.

16.   Wherever one goes, one can always find beauty in the surroundings of various places.

17.   These evergreen trees symbolize fertility because they do not die in the winter.

18.   Although they invited me, I chose not to go to their party as I dislike liquor.

19.   She did not cheat in the test, for it was not the right thing to do.

20.   Gandhiji went to Champaran (Bihar) because he really wanted to help those poor farmers.

21.   Now tell me the whole story as you heard it.

22.   Later on, he went out of his house, and sat by the sea-side.

23.   In your class, listen to your teachers very intently and take down notes.




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