Friday, 12 June 2020






“Not to understand the structure of a sentence is the biggest hurdle in getting any gainful employment or qualifying any competition exam.”

 Hence, I request you all to go through these guidelines again.

So far, we have studied the structure of a sentence in the following way.

A brief revision of it:

1.      Every sentence has two parts, namely Subject and Predicate. Thus, English is a two-word language having the Subject and Predicate.

2.      In some sentences, there is only one part. They are the sentences of command, request, or wish (come, help, have pleasure).  It these sentences, the Subject (you) is understood.

3.      In any given sentence, the Subject can be a person, place, or thing. You should know the names of basic things mentioned in the previous lesson for saying something about them.

4.      The Subject can possess qualities the qualities can be positive or negative. We have given names to those positive and negative qualities.  Hence, know the names of those qualities as given in another box.

5.      Every Subject can do an action or can have some condition. The action or condition of the Subject is expressed through verbs of action or condition. This is how the Predicate starts.

6.      The Predicate contains a verb (with object or complement, if any). It means that just the verb can complete the Predicate itself. In this type of the Predicate, the action contained in the verb remains confined to the Subject and the sense is clear. So, no object is needed.

7.      At times, the action in the verb does not complete the sense, and the action must pass on to an object for clearing the sense of the action contained in the verb. Then, we need an object. The object can by any person, place, or thing.

8.      Thus, a person, place, or thing can be a Subject a sentence, or an object of a verb. It can be a Complement also. However, it is a curiosity of the English language that we can use an adjective as a Complement (See the examples of ix below).

9.      Complement or Completer is required with those verbs in which the condition stated in the verbs remains confined to the Subject, but the sense is not clear. In such verbs, we need a Complement or Completer. Is, am, are, was, were, are the most common such verbs. We can use the verbs appear, seem, look, become, prove also as the verbs needing complement as per the situation.

1.      It appears suitable.

2.      He seems tired.

3.      He looks happy.

4.      She became a doctor.

5.      Your claim proved false. 



There are four kinds of sentences:

1.      Assertive or declarative sentence (a statement - negative or positive)

2.      Imperative sentence (a command)

3.      Interrogative sentence (a question)

4.      Exclamatory sentence (an exclamation)

1.      An assertive/declarative sentence is a sentence that states a fact. Such sentences are simple statements. They state, assert, or declare something.


1.      Ravi is a student.

2.      He lives in New Delhi.

N.B.: A declaration can be negative also.

I do not play cricket.

2.      Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence.


1.      Are you tired? (The verb precedes the Subject)

2.      Have you paid your fee? (The helping verb precedes the Subject if there is a helping verb in that declarative sentence. Otherwise, the main verb will precede the Subject as in the earlier sentence at no. 1 above.)

3.      Do you play cricket? (Do is brought from outside for making interrogative of the sentences in Present Simple Tense)

4.      Did he give you some money? (Similarly, did is brought from outside for sentences in Past Simple Tense.)

3.      Imperative sentence is a sentence which gives a command, makes a request, or expresses a wish.


1.      Go to your classroom. (An order)

2.      Please lend me some money. (A request)

3.      Have pleasure and relaxation at the picnic. (A wish)

4.      Exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses sudden and strong feelings, such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude.


1.      What a shame it is!

2.      Boy, how tired I am!

3.      How useless this pen is!

4.      How beautiful this lake is!

5.      What, No breakfast! (What = what a strange matter it is!)

In exclamatory sentences the adverb or the adjective precedes the Subject and the verb comes in the end.  

N.B.: The next lesson will be about Simple, Complex, and Compound Sentences. It will be followed by the definitions of Phrase and Clause. Thereafter, we will study Parts of Speech.  In this manner, you will be able to know “the scale” for using a word in a sentence. In addition to this, making sentences understandable in one reading will become easy.  

Best of luck. May God be kind to all of us!


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