Saturday, 30 January 2021

Cyber Security MCQ Part - 01

 

 Cyber Security MCQ Part - 01


1.      Which of the following is not a type of virus?

a) Boot sector

b) Polymorphic

c) Multipartite

d) Trojans

2.      A computer ________ is a malicious code which self-replicates by copying itself to other programs.

a) program

b) virus

c) application

d) worm

3.      Which of them is not an ideal way of spreading the virus?

a) Infected website

b) Emails

c) Official Antivirus CDs

d) USBs

4.      In mid-1981, the 1st virus for Apple computers with the name _________ came into existence.

a) Apple I

b) Apple II

c) Apple III

d) Apple Virus

5.      _______________ infects the master boot record and it is challenging and a complex task to remove this virus.

a) Boot Sector Virus

b) Polymorphic

c) Multipartite

d) Trojans

6.       ________________ gets installed & stays hidden in your computer’s memory. It stays involved to the specific type of files which it infects.

a) Boot Sector Virus

b) Direct Action Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Multipartite Virus

7.      Direct Action Virus is also known as ___________

a) Non-resident virus

b) Boot Sector Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Multipartite Virus

8.      ______________ infects the executables as well as the boot sectors.

a) Non-resident virus

b) Boot Sector Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Multipartite Virus

9.      ______________ are difficult to identify as they keep on changing their type and signature.

a) Non-resident virus

b) Boot Sector Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Multipartite Virus

10.   ____________ deletes all the files that it infects.

a) Non-resident virus

b) Overwrite Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Multipartite Virus

11.   _____________ is also known as cavity virus.

a) Non-resident virus

b) Overwrite Virus

c) Polymorphic Virus

d) Space-filler Virus

12.   Which of the below-mentioned reasons do not satisfy the reason why people create a computer virus?

a) Research purpose

b) Pranks

c) Identity theft

d) Protection

13.      A ___________ is a small malicious program that runs hidden on infected system.

a) Virus

b) Trojan

c) Shareware

d) Adware

14.      ____________ works in background and steals sensitive data.

a) Virus

b) Shareware

c) Trojan

d) Adware

15.      By gaining access to the Trojaned system the attacker can stage different types of attack using that ____________ program running in the background.

a) Trojan

b) Virus

c) Antivirus

d) Anti-malware

16.      Trojan creators do not look for _______________

a) Credit card information

b) Confidential data

c) Important documents

d) Securing systems with such programs

17.      Trojans do not do one of the following. What is that?

a) Deleting Data

b) Protecting Data

c) Modifying Data

d) Copying Data

18.      Once activated __________ can enable ____________to spy on the victim, steal their sensitive information & gain backdoor access to the system.

a) virus, cyber-criminals

b) malware, penetration testers

c) trojans, cyber-criminals

d) virus, penetration testers

19.      Trojans can not ______________

a) steal data

b) self-replicate

c) steal financial information

d) steal login credentials

20.      A _______________ provides malicious users remote control over the targeted computer.

a) DDoS-Trojan

b) Backdoor Trojan

c) Trojan-Banker

d) Trojan-Downloader

21.      _______________ programs are specially designed for stealing your account data for online banking systems, e-payment services & credit/debit cards.

a) DDoS-Trojan

b) Backdoor Trojan

c) Trojan-Banker

d) Trojan-Downloader

22.   ______________ perform automated DoS (Denial of Service) attacks on a targeted web address.

a) DDoS-Trojan

b) Backdoor Trojan

c) Trojan-Banker

d) Trojan-Downloader


23____________ work in background & keeps on downloading other malicious programs when the system is online.

a) DDoS-Trojan

b) Backdoor Trojan

c) Trojan-Banker

d) Trojan-Downloader

24.      A/an ___________ is a program that steals your logins & passwords for instant messaging applications.

a) IM – Trojans

b) Backdoor Trojans

c) Trojan-Downloader

d) Ransom Trojan

25.      _____________ can modify data on your system – so that your system doesn’t run correctly or you can no longer access specific data, or it may even ask for ransom in order to give your access.

a) IM – Trojans

b) Backdoor Trojans

c) Trojan-Downloader

d) Ransom Trojan

26.      The ______________ can cost you money, by sending text messages from your mobile phone numbers.

a) IM – Trojans

b) Backdoor Trojans

c) SMS Trojan

d) Ransom Trojan

27.      A ___________ is a method in which a computer security mechanism is bypassed untraceable for accessing the computer or its information.

a) front-door

b) backdoor

c) clickjacking

d) key-logging

28.      Backdoors cannot be designed as ______________

a) the hidden part of a program

b) as a part of Trojans

c) embedded code of the firmware

d) embedded with anti-malware

29.      Backdoors are also known as ______________

a) Malware-doors

b) Trojan-backups

c) Front-doors

d) Trapdoors

30.      Which of the following is a remote Trojan?

a) Troya

b) DaCryptic

c) BankerA

d) Game-Troj 

2 - Types of Maleware

 

Worms

 A computer worm is a type of malware that spreads copies of itself from computer to computer. A worm can replicate itself without any human interaction, and it does not need to attach itself to a software program in order to cause damage. It is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself

Trojan Horse 

A Trojan horse (or simply trojan) is any malware which misleads users of its true intent. It is a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take control of your computer.

 

Spam:

Spam refers to unsolicited bulk messages being sent through email, instant messaging or other digital communication tools. It is generally used by advertisers. It's a malware carrier—Some spam carries email attachments that if opened can infect your computer with viruses or spyware.

 

Spyware:

Spyware is a type of malicious software -- or malware -- that is installed on a computing device without the end user's knowledge. It invades the device, steals sensitive information and internet usage data, and relays it to advertisers, data firms or external users. Spyware is mostly classified into four types: adware, system monitors, tracking including web tracking, and trojans; examples of other notorious types include digital rights management capabilities that "phone home", keyloggers, rootkits, and web beacons.

 

Zombie

 

A zombie is a computer connected to a network that has been compromised by a hacker, a virus or a Trojan. It can be used remotely for malicious tasks. Most owners of zombie computers do not realize that their system is being used in this way, hence the comparison with the living dead.

 

Ransomware

Ransomware is malicious software that infects your computer by encrypt the victim's information or data and displays messages demanding a fee to be paid in order for your system to work again. This class of malware is a criminal moneymaking scheme that can be installed through deceptive links in an email message, instant message or website.

 

Cryptojackers

As cryptocurrencies become more popular,  they become increasingly expensive to mine. The problem is that mining for cryptocurrency is expensive because the process requires powerful computers, which consume a large amount of electricity. To avoid this expense, dishonest individuals, known as cryptojackers, set up websites that use a visiting computer's resources such as power, processor, and memory to mine cryptocurrencies in the background, without consent.

Cryptojacking is the process of accessing a computer's resources through the website it is visiting to mine cryptocurrency without the consent or knowledge of the person using the computer.

The website hijacks the computer's power, including CPU and memory, to help it complete complex tasks which, in turn, earns the cryptojackers digital coins.

 

Adware

Adware (or advertising software) is the term used for various pop-up advertisements that show up on your computer or mobile device. Adware has the potential to become malicious and harm your device by slowing it down, hijacking your browser and installing viruses and/or spyware.


3 - List of Computer Viruses and Antiviruses

 

    

List of Computer Virus

1.       Morris Worm or the “Great Worm”

It’s believed that Morris Worm infected around 6,000 major Unix machines. Created to highlight security flaws in Unix systems, its founder Robert Morris,

2.       Nimda

Though its main target is believed to be internet Servers running Windows NT and 2000, Nimda also affected regular users’ PCs running Windows in 2001. 

3.       ILOVEYOU

Romantic as it sounds, the ILOVEYOU virus is not the kind of a gift you’d want to receive on Valentine’s Day. 

The virus used emails as a transmission channel, disguising itself as a love letter from one of its victim’s contacts. The malware was hidden in the attachment called “LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs”. Clicking on it activated a Visual Basic script (a programming language which allows programmers to modify code), and the worm started overwriting random files on the user’s PC.

ILOVEYOU infected over ten million Windows PCs.

 

4.       SQL Slammer

The crash of the Bank of America’s ATM service, and cancellation of several Continental Airlines flights It sparked at 05:30 UTC on January 25, 2003, infecting its first server. Once the job was done, Slammer spread rapidly, doubling the number of victims every few seconds, and just ten minutes after it was released in the wild, the number of infected computers grew to 75,000.

5.       Stuxnet

Stuxnet was developed by the US and Israeli government engineers to disrupt Iran’s nuclear program. 

 

6.       CryptoLocker

 It’s ransomware

7.       Conficker

8.       Tinba

9.       Welchia

10.   Shlayer

11.   Cyborg Ransomware

12.   GoBrut

13.   Jokeroo

14.   CryptoMix Clop Ransomware

15.   Trojan Glupteba

16.   MyDoom

17.   Storm Worm

18.   Sasser & Netsky

19.   Anna Kournikova



List of Computer Virus

 

1.       Quick Heal Total Security

2.       Norton AntiVirus Plus

3.       Avira Antivirus Pro

4.       Kaspersky Anti-Virus

5.       ESET NOD32 Antivirus

6.       Bitdefender Antivirus Plus

7.       F-Secure Antivirus SAFE

8.       Bullguard Antivirus

9.       Trend Micro Antivirus+ Security

10.   Webroot SecureAnywhere AntiVirus

11.   Panda Security Antivirus

12.   G-Data Antivirus

13.   Comodo Windows Antivirus

14.   EScan Antivirus

15.   Vipre Antivirus

16.   TrustPort Antivirus

17.   Pareto Logic Antivirus

    18.   Zone Alarm Antivirus 

1 - Cyber Security (Maleware and Virus)

 

    

Malware

Malware is a catch-all term for any type of malicious software, regardless of how it works, its intent, or how it’s distributed. A virus is a specific type of malware that self-replicates by inserting its code into other programs. Viruses are a subcategory of malware.  Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware and other malicious programs.

 

List of malwares which are generally categorized as computer viruses:

1.       Virus

2.       Worms

3.       Trojan horse

4.       Spam virus

5.       Spyware

6.       Zombies

7.       Ransomware

8.       Cryptojackers


Computer virus

 

VIRUS: Vital Information Resources Under Seize

A computer virus is a computer program or a piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and run against your consent. Virus has a property to replicate itself and spread itself from one computer to another computer. It can affect the data files, boot sector of hard drive etc. when its replication succeeds. The affected area is said infected.

The majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft window. To counter with viruses, programmers created anti-virus programs.

Viruses are human made programs generally write to access private information, corrupt data, to display political and humorous messages on the user's screen.

 

Types of Computer Viruses

 

1.       Boot Sector Viruses

2.       Multipartite Viruses

3.       Stealth Viruses

4.       Macro Viruses

5.       Polymorphic Viruses

6.       Activex Viruses

7.       Browser Hijacker

8.       Resident Viruses

9.       Non-Resident Virus 

10.   File Infector Viruses

 

 

Difference between Virus and Malware:

 

Virus

Malware

Vital Information Resources Under Seize

Malicious Software

A Virus is a malicious executable code attached to another executable file which can be harmless or can modify or delete data.

Malware is a program designed to gain access to computer systems, normally for the benefit of some third party, without the user’s permission.

Resident and Non -resident viruses are two types of Virus.

Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware and other malicious programs.

Antivirus software are used for protection against viruses.

Antimalware software are used for protection against malware.

Virus is a type of Malware.

Malware contains several programs; virus is one of them.

 

 

Boot sector viruses

A boot sector virus is a type of virus that infects the boot sector of floppy disks or the Master Boot Record (MBR) of hard disks. The infected code runs when the system is booted from an infected disk, but once loaded it will infect other floppy disks when accessed in the infected computer. While boot sector viruses infect at a BIOS level, they use DOS commands to spread to other floppy disks. 

 

Multipartite computer virus

A multipartite also known as hybrid virus is a computer virus that's able to attack both the boot sector and executable files of an infected computer. Ghostball was the first multipartite virus discovered. The virus was discovered in October 1989, by Fridrik Skulason. Examples of multipartite viruses include Flip and Invader. A hybrid virus (sometimes called a multi-part or multipartite virus) is one that combines characteristics of more than one type to infect both program files and system sectors. 

 

 

Stealth viruses

A stealth virus is a type of virus malware that contains sophisticated means of avoiding detection by antivirus software. After it manages to get into the now-infected machine a stealth virus hides itself by continually renaming and moving itself around the disc. A stealth virus is complex malware that hides itself after infecting a computer.

Macro Virus

A macro virus is a computer virus written in the same macro language used for software programs, including Microsoft Excel or word processors such as Microsoft Word. When a macro virus infects a software application, it causes a sequence of actions to begin automatically when the application is opened. An example of a macro virus is the Melissa virus which appeared in March 1999. When a user opens a Microsoft Word document containing the Melissa virus, their computer becomes infected. 

Polymorphic viruses

This type of "shape shifting" virus produces malicious code that replicates itself endlessly and repeatedly changes its characteristics

The code changes itself each time it runs, but the function of the code will not change at all. For example, 1+3 and 6-2 both achieve the same result while using different values and operations. 

The first known polymorphic virus was written by Mark Washburn. The virus, called 1260, was written in 1990. 

ActiveX Viruses

ActiveX is a virus built into your browser. If you have it enabled, it allows any web page you look at to take over complete control of your computer and extract any information or insert any instructions the web page maintainer wants.

 

Browser Hijacker 

A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.

Resident Virus 

A resident virus is a computer virus that stores itself within memory, allowing it to infect other files even when the originally infected program is no longer running. Being stored in memory allows the virus to spread easier because it has more access to other parts of the computer.

Non-Resident Virus 

A non-resident virus is a computer virus that does not store or execute itself from the computer memory. Executable viruses are an example of a non-resident virus.

 

File Infector Virus

A file infector virus is a type of virus that typically attaches to executable code, such as computer games and word processors. Once the virus has infected a file, it can spread to other programs, and even into other networks that utilize the infected files and programs.

 

Worms

 A computer worm is a type of malware that spreads copies of itself from computer to computer. A worm can replicate itself without any human interaction, and it does not need to attach itself to a software program in order to cause damage. It is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself

Trojan Horse 

A Trojan horse (or simply trojan) is any malware which misleads users of its true intent. It is a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take control of your computer.

 

Difference between Worms and Virus :

 

WORMS

VIRUS

Trojan Horse 

A Worm is a form of malware that replicates itself and can spread to different computers via Network.

A Virus is a malicious executable code attached to another executable file which can be harmless or can modify or delete data.

Trojan Horse rather than replicate capture some important information about a computer system or a computer network.

The main objective of worms to eat the system resources.

The main objective of virus is to modify the information.

The main objective of Trojan horse to steal the information.

It doesn’t need a host to replicate from one computer to another.

 

It require host is needed for spreading.

Trojan horse does not replicate itself.

It is less harmful as compared.

 

It is more harmful.

It is more harmful.

Worms can be detected and removed by the Antivirus and firewall.

Antivirus software are used for protection against viruses.

Trojan can be detected and removed by the Antivirus and firewall.

Worms can be controlled by remote.

Virus can’t be controlled by remote.

Trojan horse can also be controlled by remote.

Worms are executed via weaknesses in system.

Viruses are executed via executable files.

Trojan horse executes through a program and interprets as utility software.

Morris Worm, Storm Worm and SQL Slammer,  ILOVEYOU, Michelangelo, and MSBlast are some of the examples of worms.

Resident and Non -resident viruses are two types of Virus.

A friend might have sent an email with an attachment. The user will expect that it's something important and download it. They'll open the file and there the problem starts.

It does not needs human action to replicate.

 

It needs human action to replicate.

It needs human action to replicate.

Its spreading speed is faster.

Its spreading speed is slower as compared.

Spreading rate of Trojan horse is slow in comparison of both virus and worms.

 

 

 

1 - Data Visualization using matplotlib in Python

 


Data Visualization using matplotlib in Python

 

Data Visualization:

                Data Visualization refers to the graphical or visual representation of information and data using visual elements like charts, graphs, maps etc.

 

PyPlot:

                PyPlot is a collection of methods within matplotlib library of Python, Which allow user to create 2D Plots easily. Matplotlib is a Python library.

To install matplotlib use the following command.

Pip install matplotlib

 

Type of basic charts of PyPlot

1.       Line Chart: A line chart is created using plot() method.

2.       Bar Chart: A vertical bar chart is created using bar() method and horizontal bar chart using barh() method.

3.       Histogram Plot: A histogram is created using hist() method

4.       Pie Chart: A pie chart is created using pie() method.

5.       Scatter Plot: A scatter plot is created using scatter() method.

 

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x=[1,2,3,4,5]

y=[2,3,4,5,6]

plt.plot(x,y)        #draw a line chart

plt.xlabel(“x axis values”)

plt.ylabel(“y axis values”)

plt.legend()        #show the legend

plt.show()           #show the chart/plot as per given specification

 

 

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x=[1,2,3,4,5]

y=[1,2,3,4,5]

plt.plot(x,y)

plt.show()

 

 

 

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x=["Ram","Raj","Sam","john","Amit"]

y=[30,20,25,40,35]

plt.plot(x,y)

plt.title("Marks Sheet")

plt.xlabel("Student's Name")

plt.ylabel("Marks")

plt.show()

 

 

 

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x=[2,3,4,5,6,7]

y=[1,2,3,4,5,6]

plt.plot(x,y)

plt.show()

 

 

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x=["VII","VIII","IX","X"]

y=[40,50,35,45]

plt.bar(x,y)

plt.show()

 

Specifying Plot Size and Grid

 

plt.figure(figsize=(width,height))

 

plt.grid(True)

 

Changing Line Color and Style

 

Plt.plot(x,y,color_code)

 

 

Color Code

 

‘r’ red

‘g’ green

‘b’ blue

‘m’ magenta

‘y’ yellow

‘k’ black

‘c’ cyan

‘w’ white

 

 

Change Line Width

 

linewidth=width

plt.plot(x,y,linewidth=2)

 

Line Style

 

linestyle or ls =[‘solid’ | ‘dashed’ | ‘dashdot’ | ‘dotted ]

 

ls=’:’ | ‘-‘  | ‘_ _’ | ‘-‘

 

plt.plot(x,y,linewidth=4,linestyle=’dashed’)

 

 

Assignment - 1

 

1.       WAP to plot a line chart to depict the changing weekly onion prices for four weeks. Give appropriate axes labels.

 

2.       Marks is a list that stores marks of a student in 10 unit tests. Write a program to plot the student’s performance in these 10 unit tests.

 

3.       Ram is doing some research. She has a stored line of pascal’s triangle numbers as ar2 as shown below:

ar2 = [1,7,21,35,21,7,1]

·         He want to plot the sine, cosine, and tangent values for the same array.

·         He wants cyan color for sine line, red color for cosine line and black color for tangent line

·         Tangent line should be dashed.