Tuesday, 23 June 2020




PART - 02

4. Adjective


We created words like good, tall, hopeless, ugly, bad, tall, strong, etc for denoting the qualities of persons, places, or things. These words are called adjectives.

An adjective qualifies a noun or pronoun. It is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun:


1.      The blue sky looks attractive. (Attributive Adjective)

2.      The angry sea scares us. (Attributive Adjective)

3.      I bought all the tickets available. (Attributive adjective qualifying the noun tickets.)

4.      The sky is blue. (Predicative Adjective)

5.      I saw him laughing. (Present Participle as an attributive adj. qualifying the pronoun ‘him.’)

 Three articles (a, an, the) too are adjectives as they qualify nouns.

5. Adverb


Some words like quickly, seriously, furtively, dishonestly, correctly, hard, etc. modify actions or adjectives. These words are called adverbs.

An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb: 


1.      He works speedily. (modifies a verb)

2.      You are very kind. (Modifies an adjective, `kind.’)

3.      He behaved extraordinarily badly towards me. (modifies the adverb badly)

Modifications of a verb, adjective or adverb can be inferred from the context of the sentence as in sentences 2 and 3. ‘very’ modifies the adjective ‘kind’, and ‘extraordinarily’ modifies another the adverb ‘badly’.

N.B.: In a few instances an adverb can be used as a noun also. It means that in such cases the adverb is placed after a preposition and performs the function of a noun because a preposition governs a noun or pronoun. 


1.      The ‘ups’ and ‘downs’ of life.  (Adverbs acting as Nouns.)

2.      I have not met him since then. (Here, ‘Since’ is a preposition governing ‘then’ which, in this sentence is an ‘adverb’ acting as a ‘noun.’

3.      I will follow his instructions from now. (From is a preposition and now is an adverb which is acting as a noun in this sentence.

6. Preposition


Some words as in, out, from, at, on, etc. were created for making phrases. A phrase is a group of words that acts as a single part of speech.


I met him in Delhi. (in Delhi is a phrase – an adverb phrase-, and it acts as an adverb)

A preposition governs a noun or pronoun. It introduces a phrase and is said to govern the noun or pronoun in that phrase. It shows the relation of that noun or pronoun with some other word or words in the sentence: 


1.      I saw a dog in your garden.

2.      Ravi is fond of tea.

3.      He sat under the tree.

4.      The timetable is subject to change. (the preposition governs the noun ‘change’.)

7. Conjunction



A conjunction is a joining word.

(A)   Simple:  

It links together words (e.g. two nouns, two prepositions, and two phrases); and, but, or are the chief examples.


Ravi and Rakesh play cricket. Nothing but hard work matters. Give me a pen or pencil. ‘to’ and ‘fro’, ‘in’ and ‘out’

(B)   Coordinating:  

It joins together clauses that have the same rank and function in a sentence; and, but, or are the chief examples.


1.      I played, and Amit sang in that ground.          

2.      I reached there on time, but you never came.

3.      I shall go, or he will protest against my presence.

(C)    Subordinating:  

It joins a dependent clause to the clause on which it is dependent; if, when, till, where, although, before, and after are the chief examples.


You are wrong if you think so.

8. Interjection



Interjections are words that are used to call the attention of the person addressed (Hello!, Well!, Listen!), or to express a feeling of joy, grief, or surprise (e.g. Hurrah! Alas! Ha!)

1.      Hello! Your pen is here.

2.      Hurrah! We have won.

Interjections are single words. Groups of words such as ‘How awful!’ are not interjections, but elliptical exclamatory sentences, the subject and a part of the predicate not being expressed. The full form of ‘How awful’ is:  How awful it is!

Come! Hark! also are not interjections. They are complete sentences with their subjects not expressed.

Note:  A given word can perform more than one function, and it may belong to more than one part of speech according to the function it does in a particular sentence: 


1.      Radha has a round face. (Adjective)

2.      His action was roundly condemned. (Adverb)

3.      Ravi rounded his lips. (Verb)

4.      We sat round the table (Preposition governing a noun the table)

5.      Ravi turned round (Adverb modifying verb turned)

6.      The principal takes a round at 7.00 a.m. (noun)



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